The Tubes

In this case it is advisable to design a pipeline with a slope equal to the minimum slope. In constructing the longitudinal profile of the pipeline addressed the issue of connecting the tubes in height. In engineering practice there are two ways to connect pipes in the calculation point "in shelyga shelygu 'and' water levels." Fig. 3.13. Pipe connection scheme: a, – shelyga in shelygu b, d – on water levels in Fig. 3.13, and a b shows the connection scheme of the same diameter pipe, and Fig. 3.13, d – pipelines of different diameters.

Connection pipe made within the manhole. When connecting pipes "shelyga in shelygu "(see Fig. 3.13, and c) combined height of the arches of the upper tube, called shely-gami. When connecting the tubes, "the levels of water" (see Fig. 3.13, b, d) combined height calculated water levels. Experience has shown that for sanitation facilities, with the flat nature of weakly expressed terrain preferred compounds of the same diameter pipe "on water levels," but with different diameters – "shelyga in shelygu." When connecting the tubes the same diameter "in shelyga shelygu" (see Fig. 3.13, I) may lie above the flooding of pipe sections from the bottom, which is undesirable from the conditions of self-cleaning of pipelines.

At worst mild relief areas of the two connection methods pipes of different diameter preferred the second method – "the levels of water" (see Fig. 3.13 g), which obtained the lowest penetration of the network. Longitudinal section operates on the scale: horizontal equal to the scale of 1:5000 or Plan 1:10,000, and the vertical equal to 1:50, 1:100 or 1:200. At the base of the profile is filled with four rows (bands) with the following data (bottom up): number of calculation points, the distance between them, the mark the ground; mark trays tube (see Fig. 3.11). The upper line of the line is considered a conditional horizon. Mark it made on 10 meters below the lowest mark of the earth's surface, in order to accommodate the limits of the profile images of engineering structures and communications on the track header. The marks on the ground profile up to a point 1 cm and the pipe trays – up to 1 mm. The surface of the land between the calculated points represent the straight lines, if on this site is not found a pronounced relief. Geological and hydrogeological data is applied to the profile in the form of columns. Building a pipeline from the producing well conditioned horizon. On profiles provide data on the material of pipes and foundations under them show manholes at the ends of settlement areas and projected pumping stations. The calculation starts with the point of dictating. These calculations can be made payable to profile. In developing the working drawings of the longitudinal profile is constructed in a horizontal scale of 1:500 or close to that ratio. Fig. 3.14. Longitudinal profile of the collector (working drawing) on the profile point mark land leveling, race surface, the location of the tracks, angles, all manholes and special engineered structures, as well as all underground facilities in the immediate vicinity of the drainage pipe. Fig. 3.14 shows a working drawing of the longitudinal profile of the collector.

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